[ Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh Cơ Bản ] Các Dạng So Sánh Trong Tiếng Anh – Bài Tập Vận Dụng

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So sánh là câu thường gặp nhất trong đề thi tiếng Anh. Đây là một phần rất khó vì nó gây ra nhầm lẫn cho những bạn mới học. Để làm tốt được bài yêu cầu bạn nắm được những nguyên tắc cơ bản thì các bạn mới có thể dễ dàng nhớ được các loại so sánh.

Vậy phương pháp học như thế nào? Có bao nhiêu dạng câu so sánh trong tiếng anh? Cấu trúc từng dạng như thế nào?

Tất cả sẽ được Tinnhanh1s.com hướng dẫn các bạn trong bài viết dưới đây.

 

Các Dạng So Sánh Trong Tiếng Anh

So sánh ngang bằng


– Công thức: as + adj + as
– Ví dụ: Lan is 16. I’m 16, too. Lan is as young as I.(Lan trẻ như tôi).

So sánh kém

– Công thức: not so/ not as + adj + as
– Ví dụ: Quang is 1.7 metres tall. Hung is 1.6 metres tall. Hung is not so tall as Quang.
(Hung không cao bằng Quang)

So sánh hơn

– Công thức: Tính từ ngắn + er + than
More + tính từ dài + than

(tính từ ngắn là tính từ có một âm tiết, tình từ dài là tính từ có từ hai âm tiết trở lên)

– Ví dụ: My ruler is 5 cm long. Nam’s ruler is 7 cm long.
–> My ruler is shorter than Nam’s.(thước kẻ của tôi nhắn hơn thước kẻ của Nam)
–> Nam’s ruler is longer than mine.
Nga is more beautiful than Hong.(Nga xinh hơn Hồng)

Chú ý:
• Khi thêm “er” nhân đôi phụ âm cuối nếu trước nó là một nguyên âm.Ví dụ: hot –> hotter

fat –> fatter

thin –> thinner
fit –> fitter

• Một số tính từ có hai âm tiết kết thúc bằng “et, ow, le, er,y” thì áp dụng qui tắc của tính từ ngắnVí dụ: quiet –> quieter

clever –> cleverer

simple –> simpler
narrow –> narrower

• Không có dạng phủ định của so sánh hơnA is taller than B –> B isn’t as tall as A
(không viết: B isn’t taller than A)

So sánh cao nhất

– Công thức: The + tính từ ngắn + est
The + most + tính từ dài

– Ví dụ: This is the longest river in the world.(đây là con sông dài nhất trên thế giới)

She is the most beautiful girl in my class.(cô ấy là cô gái xinh nhất lớp tôi)

– Bốn cấu trúc viết lời bình phẩm:

That’s/ it’s + the + tính từ ngắn + est + noun + S + have/ has + ever + P2.
That’s/ it’s + the + most + tính từ dài + noun + S + have/ has + ever + P2.

Ví dụ:

That’s the most interesting book I’ve ever read.
That’s the longest bridge I’ve ever seen.

S + have/ has + P2 + a/any + tính từ ngắn + er + noun + than…..
S + have/ has + P2 + a + more + tính từ dài + noun + than…..

Ví dụ:[INDENT=3]I’ve never read a more interesting book than this one.
I’ve never seen any/a longer bridge than this one.

– Giới từ ở cấp so sánh cao nhất:

+ in: đi với danh từ tổ, nhóm, nơi chỗ: in the group, in the company, in the world …
+ of: đi với danh từ chỉ thời gian: of the year, of the month, of one’s life…Ví dụ: Nam is the tallest boy in my class.

Birthday is the happiest day of my life.

Các tính từ bất quy tắc

Tính từ so sánh hơn so sánh cao nhất
Good/well better the best
Badly/bad/ill worse the worst
Little less the least
Much/many more the most
Far father/further the farther/furthest

Chú ý: eldest, elder: chỉ anh trai, chị gái trong gia đình

older, oldest: là cấp so sánh hơn và cao nhất của “old”.

So sánh kép (càng…..càng….)

• Công thức 1: the comparative + S + V…the comparative + S + V…

Ví dụ: the more you learn, the more you know.(càng học bạn càng biết nhiều)The sooner you start, the earlier you arrive.

• Công thức 2: the more + S + V, the comparative + S + V

Ví dụ: the more you study, the smarter you will become.
The more exercises you do, the better you understand the lesson

• Trong trường hợp nếu cả hai vế đều có chủ ngữ giả ‘it is’ thì có thể bỏ chúng đi[INDENT=3]The shorter (it is), the better (it is).

6. So sánh bội số– So sánh bội số là so sánh: bằng nửa (half), gấp đôi (twice), gấp ba (three times),…
– Không được sử dụng so sánh hơn kém mà sử dụng so sánh bằng, khi so sánh phải xác định danh từ là đếm được hay không đếm được, vì đằng trước chúng có many/much [INDENT=3]Ví dụ:
This encyclopedy costs twice as much as the other one.
Jerome has half as many records now as I had last year.
At the clambake last week, Fred ate three times as many oysters as Bob.

Chú ý: Các lối nói: twice that many/twice that much = gấp đôi ngần ấy… chỉ được dùng trong khẩu ngữ, không được dùng trong văn viết.We have expected 80 people at that rally, but twice that many showed up. (twice as many as that number).

 

Bài Tập Vận Dụng

 

Hoàn thành các câu so sánh sau

1. So sánh ngang bằng

a. Mary/ tall/ her brother.

_______________________________________________

b. A lemon/ not sweet/ an orange.

_______________________________________________

c. A donkey/ not big/ a horse.

_______________________________________________

d. This dress/ pretty/ that one.

_______________________________________________

e. the weather/ not cold/ yesterday.

_______________________________________________

2. So sánh hơn:

a. A rose/ beautiful/ a weed.

_______________________________________________

b. A dog/ intelligent/ a chicken.

_______________________________________________

c. Ba/ friendly/ Nam.

_______________________________________________

d.Your house/ far/ from school / my house.

_______________________________________________

e. A horse/ strong/ a person.

_______________________________________________

3. So sánh nhất:

a. The Nile/ long/ river/ in the world.

_______________________________________________

b. Lan/ tall/ student / in my class.

_______________________________________________

c. English coffee/ bad/ of all.

_______________________________________________

d. Australia/ small/ continent in the world.

_______________________________________________

e. That/ high/ mountain in the world.

_______________________________________________

Bài tập bổ sung

Bài tập 1: Hoàn thành câu bằng dạng so sánh đúng của từ trong ngoặc:

1. Her daughter is…………….her (beautiful).

2. Summer is………………..season of the year (hot)

3. That dog isn’t………………..it looks (dangerous)

4. In the past, people were………………..than today (polite)

5. It is………..today than it was yesterday (cold)

6. Our hotel was…………..than all the others in the town (cheap)

7. What’s………………..river in the world (long)

8. It was an awful day. It was………….day of my life (bad)

9. Everest is……………mountain in the world. It is………than any other mountain (high)

10. I prefer this chair to the other one. It’s……………… (comfortable)

Bài tập 2: Viết lại các câu sau bắt đầu bằng từ cho trước sao cho nghĩa không thay đổi.

1. This is the most delicious cake I’ve ever tasted.

=> I’ve…………………………..

2. I’ve never met any more dependable person than George.

=> George is…………………………

3. There isn’t anybody as kind-hearted as your mother.

=> Your mother is……………………

4. There is no better teacher in this school than Mr John.

=> Mr John is……………………………..

5. Have you got any bigger than that one?

=> Is this…………………………………?

Answer key

Bài 1:

1. Her daughter is as beautiful as her.

2. Summer is the hottest season of the year.

3. That dog isn’t as dangerous as it looks.

4. In the past, people were more polite than today.

5. It is colder today than it was yesterday.

6. Our hotel was cheaper than all the others in the town.

7. What’s the longest river in the world.

8. It was an awful day. It was the worst day of my life.

9. Everest is the highest mountain in the world. It is higher than any other mountain.

10. I prefer this chair to the other one. It’s more comfortable.

Bài 2:

1. This is the most delicious cake I’ve ever tasted.

=> I’ve never tasted a more delicious cake than this one.

2. I’ve never met any more dependable person than George.

=> George is the most dependable person I’ve ever met.

3. There isn’t anybody as kind-hearted as your mother.

=> Your mother is more kind-hearted than anyone.

4. There is no better teacher in this school than Mr John.

=> Mr John is the best teacher in this school.

5. Have you got any bigger hat than that one?

=> Is this the smallest hat you’ve got?

II. Rewrite these sentences, keeping the original meaning:

1. My house is bigger than your house.

=> Your house is………………….

2. The black car is cheaper than the red car.

=> The red car_____________

3. This film is more interesting than that one.

=> That film is_____________

4. My kitchen is smaller than yours.

=> Your kitchen________________

5. My grandmother is older than every one in my family.

=> My grandmother is the________

6. No one in my class is as tall as Tam.

=> Tam is the____________________

7. I can’t cook as well as my mother.

=> My mother can cook____________

8. He does not play tennis as well as Jack.

=> Jack can___________________

9. I did not spend as much money as you.

=> You spent___________________

10. I don’t think this book is expensive as it is.

=> This book is____________

11. He is the tallest boy in his class.

=> No one in_______________

12. This is the most interesting film of all.

=> No other films are_____________

13. No cars in the world are more expensive than Japanese ones.

=> Japanese cars _____

14. This exercise is easier than that one.

=> That exercise is not_________

15. He drives more carefully than Jack does.

=> Jack_____________

16. No one in the group plays better than he.

=> He can___________________

17. No hotel in the city is as comfortable as this.

=> This hotel is the _______

18. Other oceans in the world aren’t as large as the Pacific one.

=> The Pacific Ocean is ______

BÀI TẬP VIẾT LẠI CÂU SO SÁNH BÀI SỐ 2

I. Chia đúng từ trong ngoặc:

1. It’s……….smaller…………. than mine. (small)

2. Yours is………bigger………….. than mine. (big)

3. It cost………less………….. than I thought. (little)

4. He’s………more intelligent………….. than he looks. (intelligent)

5. The road is……..more narrow…………… than the motorway. (narrow)

6. She talks…….quicker……………. than I do. (quickly)

7. It’s………worse………….. than it looks. (bad)

8. It’s……….better…………. than it was. (good)

9. It was……..quicker…………… than I thought it would be. (quick)

10. I’d like some……….farther…………. information about your courses. (far)

II. Dùng các hình thức so sánh với tính từ trong ngoặc:

1. Mary is 10 years old. Julie is 8 years old. Mary is (old)……………………….Julie.

2. The Alps are very high. They are (high)……………………..mountains in Europe.

3. An ocean is (large)………………………….. a sea.

4. A Rolls Royce costs a lot of money. A Twingo costs less money.

A Rolls Royce is (expensive)………………………….a Twingo.

5. John’s results were good. Fred’s results were very poor. Fred’s results were (bad)…………………………..John’s.

6. This exercise is not difficult. It’s (easy)………………………….I expected.

7. The weather is not good today – it’s raining. I hope the weather will be (good)……………………next week.

8. People are not friendly in big cities. They are usually (friendly)………………….in small towns.

9. In the government of a country, the President is (important)…………………person.

10. People say that Chinese is (difficult)……………….to learn than English.

11. This test is not (difficult)…………………as it was last month.

12. The winter is coming. It is getting (cold)………………and (cold)……………….

13. The problem seems to be (serious)……….and…………

Đáp án Bài tập viết lại câu so sánh trong tiếng Anh

1. older than                            2. higher than

3. larger than                          4. more expensive

5. worse than                         6. easier than

7. better                                 8. Friendlier

9. the most important                         10. more difficult

11. as difficult                                     12. colder – colder

13. more – more serious

III. Chia dạng đúng của tính từ trong ngoặc:

1. The movie was (interesting)…………….than the one on TV.

2. We’ve got (little)……………………….time than I thought.

3. This shirt is too small. I need a ( large)……………..one.

4. Lan is (clever)……………..and (pretty)……………….than Lien.

5. She is (nice)………………………than I expected.

6. This was the (big)………………….farm I’ve ever visited.

7. Who between the two workers is the (good)…………………..?

8. This old machine is (powerful)…………….than we thought.

9. The farmers have never had a (rich)………… harvest than that.

10. Which is (difficult)……………………, English or Math?

11. It is the (expensive)…………………of the two cars.

12. Which is the (expensive)…………………of these two coats?

13. What is the (long)……………….river in Vietnam.

Đáp án:

1. more interesting

2. less

3. larger

4. cleverer – prettier

5. nicer

6. biggest

7. best

8. more powerful

9. as rich as

10. more difficult

11. most expensive

12. most expensive

13. most long

IV. Viết lại các câu sau sao cho nghĩa không đổi:

1. Her old house is bigger than her new one.

=> Her new house……………………………………………

2. No one in my class is taller than Peter.

=> Peter……………………………………………….

3. The black dress is more expensive than the white one.

=> The white dress……………………………………………

4. According to me, English is easier than Maths.

=> According to me, Maths………………………………….

5. No one in my group is more intelligent than Mary.

=> Mary……………………………………………………….

6. No river in the world is longer than the Nile.

=> The Nile…………………………………………………..

7. Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.

=> No mountain………………………………………………

8. This is the first time I have ever met such a pretty girl.

=> She is……………………………………………………..

9. He works much. He feels tired.

=> The more…………………………………………………

10. This computer works better than that one.

=> That computer……………………………………………..

11. The apartment is big. The rent is high.

=> The bigger………………………………………………….

12. We set off soon. We will arrive soon.

=> The sooner……………………………………………………

13. The joke is good. The laughter is loud.

=> The better………………………………………………………

14. She gets fat. She feels tired.

=> The fatter……………………………………………………….

15. As he gets older, he wants to travel less.

=> The older……………………………………………………….

16. The children are excited with the difficult games.

=> The more……………………………………………………….

17. People dive fast. Many accidents happen.

=> The faster……………………………………………………….

18. I meet him much. I hate him much

=> The more……………………………………………………….

19. My boss works better when he is pressed for time,

=> The less………………………………………………………….

20. As he has much money, he wants to spend much.

=> The more………………………………………………………….

21. If you read many books, you will have much knowledge.

=> The more……………………………………………………………

22. He speaks too much and people feel bored.

=> The more……………………………………………………………

23. The growth in the economy makes people’s living condition better.

=> The more……………………………………………………………..

24. People learn a lot of things as they travel far.

=> The farther…………………………………………………………….

Đáp án:

1. Her new house isn’t so/ as big as her old one.

2. Peter is the tallest in my class.

3. The white dress isn’t so/ as expensive as the black one.

4. According to me, Maths isn’t so/ as easy as English.

5. Mary is the most intelligent in my group.

6. The Nile is the longest river in the world.

7. No mountain in the world is higher than Mount Everest.

8. She is the prettiest girl I have ever met.

9. The more he works, the more tired he feels.

10. That computer doesn’t work so/ as well as that one.

11. The bigger the apartment is, the higher the rent is.

12.The better the joke is, the louder the laughter is.

14. The fatter she gets, the more tired she feels.

15. The older he gets, the less he want to travel.

16. The more difficult the games are, the more excited the children are.

17. The faster people drive, the more accidents happen.

18.The more I meet him, the more I hate him.

19. The less time my boss has, the better he works.

20. The more money he has, the more he wants to spend.

21. The more books you read, the more knowledge you will have.

22.The more he speaks, the more bored people feel.

23.The more the economy grows, the better people’s living condition is.

24. The farther people travel, the more the learn

Trên đây là, [ Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh Cơ Bản ] Các Dạng So Sánh Trong Tiếng Anh – Bài Tập Vận Dụng. Hy vọng qua bài viết này chúng tôi giúp bạn có được thêm kiến thức và biết cách làm bài so sánh trong tiếng Anh.

Đừng quên theo dõi Tinnhanh1s.com đề cập nhật những chuyên đề [ Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh Cơ Bản ] mới nhất nhé!

 

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